In 2019, Oslo (population 673,000) recorded zero pedestrian deaths. Several innovations achieved this. Over the previous five years, the city replaced almost all on-street parking with pavements and segregated bike lanes (over 1,000 parking spaces were removed). Major streets were closed to cars, and congestion charging raised the fee to drive into the city centre by 70%, with the aim of making most of the city car-free by 2019. Car parking charges were increased by 50%. Speed humps were introduced. The city also lowered the speed limit. The result was that in 2019, the city recorded zero pedestrian deaths. This is a significant improvement on an annual average death rate of 3.6 over the previous five years. By comparison, in 2018, there were 57 pedestrian deaths in London. Oslo’s “Vision Zero Strategy” aims for no traffic related fatalities or serious injuries on its roads. You can read more about the measures used to achieve Oslo’s zero fatality rate in this Guardian article.